《大學》Daxue – The Great Learning,中國文化核心經典,經部四書類

 

大 學

Daxue  – The Great Learning

James Legge

 

子程子曰:『大學孔氏之遺書。而初學入德之門也。於今可見古人為學次第者,獨賴此篇之存,而論孟次之。學者必由是而學焉,則庶乎其不差矣。』

My master, the philosopher Ch'ang, says: "The Great Learning is a Book transmitted by the Confucian School, and forms the gate by which the first learners enter into virtue. That we can now perceive the order in which the ancients pursued their learning is solely owing to the preservation of this work, the Analects and Mencius coming after it. Learners must commence their course with this, and then it may be hoped they will be kept from error."

 

大學之道,在明明德,在親民,在止於至善。

What the Great Learning teaches, is—to illustrate illustrious virtue; to renovate the people; and to rest in the highest excellence.

知止而后有定,定而后能靜,靜而后能安,安而后能慮,慮而后能得。

The point where to rest being known, the object of pursuit is then determined; and, that being determined, a calm unperturbedness may be attained to. To that calmness there will succeed a tranquil repose. In that repose there may be careful deliberation, and that deliberation will be followed by the attainment of the desired end.

物有本末,事有終始,知所先後,則近道矣。

Things have their root and their branches. Affairs have their end and their beginning. To know what is first and what is last will lead near to what is taught in the Great Learning.

古之欲明明德於天下者,先治其國;欲治其國者,先齊其家;欲齊其家者,先脩其身;欲脩其身者,先正其心;欲正其心者,先誠其意;欲誠其意者,先致其知;致知在格物。

The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered well their own States. Wishing to order well their States, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things.

物格而后知至,知至而后意誠,意誠而后心正,心正而后身脩,身脩而后家齊,家齊而后國治,國治而后天下平。

Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their States were rightly governed. Their States being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy.

自天子以至於庶人,壹是皆以脩身為本。

From the Son of Heaven down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of the person the root of everything besides.

其本亂而末治者,否矣。

It cannot be, when the root is neglected, that what should spring from it will be well ordered.

其所厚者薄,而其所薄者厚,未之有也!

It never has been the case that what was of great importance has been slightly cared for, and, at the same time, that what was of slight importance has been greatly cared for.

右經一章,蓋孔子之言,而曾子述之。其傳十章,則曾子之意,而門人記之也。舊本頗有錯簡,今因程子所定,而更考經文,別為序次如左。

 

1

 

The preceding chapter of classical text is in the words of Confucius, handed down by the philosopher Zeng. The ten chapters of explanation which follow contain the views of Zeng, and were recorded by his disciples. In the old copies of the work, there appeared considerable confusion in these, from the disarrangement of the tablets. But now, availing myself of the decisions of the philosopher Cheng, and having examined anew the classical text, I have arranged it in order, as follows:

《康誥》曰:“克明德。”

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “He was able to make his virtue illustrious.”

《大甲》曰:“顧諟天之明命。”

In the Tai Jia, it is said, “He contemplated and studied the illustrious decrees of Heaven.”

《帝典》曰:“克明峻德。”

In the Canon of the emperor (Yao), it is said, “He was able to make illustrious his lofty virtue.”

皆自明也。

These passages all show how those sovereigns made themselves illustrious.

右傳之首章。釋明明德。
The above first chapter of commentary explains the illustration of illustrious virtue.

 

2

 

湯之盤銘曰:“苟日新,日日新,又日新。”

On the bathing tub of Tang, the following words were engraved:— “If you can one day renovate yourself, do so from day to day. Yea, let there be daily renovation.”

《康誥》曰:“作新民。”

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “To stir up the new people.”

《詩》曰:“周雖舊邦,其命惟新。”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Although Zhou was an ancient State, the ordinance which lighted on it was new.”

是故君子無所不用其極。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Although Zhou was an ancient State, the ordinance which lighted on it was new.”

右傳之二章。釋新民。

The above second chapter of commentary explains the renovating of the people.

 

3

 

《詩》云:“邦畿千里,惟民所止。”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “The royal domain of a thousand li is where the people rest.”

《詩》云:“緡蠻黃鳥,止於丘隅。”子曰:“於止,知其所止,可以人而不如鳥乎!”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “The twittering yellow bird rests on a corner of the mound.” The Master said, “When it rests, it knows where to rest. Is it possible that a man should not be equal to this bird?”

《詩》云:“穆穆文王,於緝熙敬止!”為人君,止於仁;為人臣,止於敬;為人子,止於孝;為人父,止于慈;與國人交,止於信。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Profound was king Wen. With how bright and unceasing a feeling of reverence did he regard his resting places!” As a sovereign, he rested in benevolence. As a minister, he rested in reverence. As a son, he rested in filial piety. As a father, he rested in kindness. In communication with his subjects, he rested in good faith.

《詩》云:“瞻彼淇澳,菉竹猗猗。有斐君子,如切如磋,如琢如磨。瑟兮僩兮,赫兮喧兮。有斐君子,終不可諠兮!”

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Look at that winding course of the Qi, with the green bamboos so luxuriant! Here is our elegant and accomplished prince! As we cut and then file; as we chisel and then grind: so has he cultivated himself. How grave is he and dignified! How majestic and distinguished! Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten.”

如切如磋者,道學也;如琢如磨者,自脩也;瑟兮僩兮者,恂栗也;赫兮喧兮者,威儀也;有斐君子,終不可諠兮者,道盛德至善,民之不能忘也。

That expression— “As we cut and then file,” indicates the work of learning.“As we chisel and then grind”, indicates that of self-culture. “How grave is he and dignified!” indicates the feeling of cautious reverence. “How commanding and distinguished!” indicates an awe-inspiring deportment. “Our elegant and accomplished prince never can be forgotten,” indicates how, when virtue is complete and excellence extreme, the people cannot forget them.

《詩》云:“於戲前王不忘!”君子賢其賢而親其親,小人樂其樂而利其利,此以沒世不忘也。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Ah! the former kings are not forgotten.” Future princes deem worthy what they deemed worthy, and love what they loved. The common people delight in what delighted them, and are benefited by their beneficial arrangements. It is on this account that the former kings, after they have quitted the world, are not forgotten.

右傳之三章。釋止於至善。

The above third chapter of commentary explains resting in the highest excellence.

 

4

 

子曰:“聽訟,吾猶人也,必也使無訟乎!”無情者不得盡其辭。大畏民志,此謂知本。

The Master said, “In hearing litigations, I am like any other body. What is necessary is to cause the people to have no litigations.” So, those who are devoid of principle find it impossible to carry out their speeches, and a great awe would be struck into men's minds;— this is called knowing the root.

右傳之四章。釋本末。

The above fourth chapter of commentary explains the root and the issue.

 

5

 

 此謂知本,

This is called knowing the root.

此謂知之至也。

This is called the perfecting of knowledge.

右傳之五章,蓋釋格物、致知之義,而今亡矣。閒嘗竊取程子之意以補之曰:“所謂致知在格物者,言欲致吾之知,在即物而窮其理也。蓋人心之靈莫不有知,而天下之物莫不有理,惟於理有未窮,故其知有不盡也。是以大學始教,必使學者即凡天下之物,莫不因其已知之理而益窮之,以求至乎其極。至於用力之久,而一旦豁然貫通焉,則眾物之表裏精粗無不到,而吾心之全體大用無不明矣。此謂物格,此謂知之至也。”

The above fifth chapter of the commentary explained the meaning of "investigating things and carrying knowledge to the utmost extent," but it is now lost. I have ventured to take the views of the scholar Cheng to supply it, as follows: The meaning of the expression, "The perfecting of knowledge depends on the investigation of things, is this:—If we wish to carry our knowledge to the utmost, we must investigate the principles of all things we come into contact with, for the intelligent mind of man is certainly formed to know, and there is not a single thing in which its principles do not inhere. But so long as all principles are not investigated, man's knowledge is incomplete. On this account, the Learning for Adults, at the outset of its lessons, instructs the learner, in regard to all things in the world, to proceed from what knowledge he has of their principles, and pursue his investigaton of them, till he reaches the extreme point. After exerting himself in this way for a long time, he will suddenly find himself possessed of a wide and far-reaching penetration. Then, the qualities of all things, whether external or internal, the subtle or the coarse, will all be apprehended, and the mind, in its entire substance and its relations to things, will be perfectly intelligent. This is called the investigation of things. This is called the perfection of knowledge.

 

6

 

所謂誠其意者:毋自欺也,如惡惡臭,如好好色,此之謂自謙,故君子必慎其獨也!

What is meant by “making the thoughts sincere,” is the allowing no self-deception, as when we hate a bad smell, and as when we love what is beautiful. This is called self-enjoyment. Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

小人閒居為不善,無所不至,見君子而後厭然,揜其不善,而著其善。人之視己,如見其肺肝然,則何益矣?此謂誠於中,形於外,故君子必慎其獨也。

There is no evil to which the mean man, dwelling retired, will not proceed, but when he sees a superior man, he instantly tries to disguise himself, concealing his evil, and displaying what is good. The other beholds him, as if he saw his heart and reins;— of what use is his disguise? This is an instance of the saying—“What truly is within will be manifested without.” Therefore, the superior man must be watchful over himself when he is alone.

曾子曰:“十目所視,十手所指,其嚴乎!”

The disciple Zeng said, “What ten eyes behold, what ten hands point to, is to be regarded with reverence!

富潤屋,德潤身,心寬體胖,故君子必誠其意。

Riches adorn a house, and virtue adorns the person. The mind is expanded, and the body is at ease. Therefore, the superior man must make his thoughts sincere.

右傳之六章。釋誠意。

The above sixth chapter of commentary explains making the thoughts sincere.

 

7

 

所謂脩身在正其心者:身有所忿懥,則不得其正;有所恐懼,則不得其正;有所好樂,則不得其正;有所憂患,則不得其正。

What is meant by, “The cultivation of the person depends on rectifying the mind” may be thus illustrated:— If a man be under the influence of passion, he will be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same, if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow and distress.

心不在焉,視而不見,聽而不聞,食而不知其味。

When the mind is not present, we look and do not see; we hear and do not understand; we eat and do not know the taste of what we eat.

此謂脩身在正其心。

This is what is meant by saying that the cultivation of the person depends on the rectifying of the mind.

右傳之七章。釋正心、脩身。

The above seventh chapter of commentary explains rectifying the mind and cultivating the person.

 

8

 

所謂齊其家在脩其身者:人之其所親愛而辟焉,之其所賤惡而辟焉,之其所畏敬而辟焉,之其所哀矜而辟焉,之其所敖惰而辟焉。故好而知其惡,惡而知其美者,天下鮮矣!

What is meant by “The regulation of one's family depends on the cultivation of his person,” is this:— Men are partial where they feel affection and love; partial where they despise and dislike; partial here they stand in awe and reverence; partial where they feel sorrow and compassion; partial where they are arrogant and rude. Thus it is that there are few men in the world, who love and at the same time know the bad qualities of the object of their love, or who hate and yet know the excellences of the object of their hatred.

故諺有之曰:“人莫知其子之惡,莫知其苗之碩。”

Hence it is said, in the common adage, “A man does not know the wickedness of his son; he does not know the richness of his growing corn.”

此謂身不脩不可以齊其家。

This is what is meant by saying that if the person be not cultivated, a man cannot regulate his family.

右傳之八章。釋脩身、齊家。

The above eighth chapter of commentary explains cultivating the person and regulating the family.

 

9

 

所謂治國必先齊其家者:其家不可教而能教人者,無之。故君子不出家而成教于國:孝者,所以事君也;弟者,所以事長也;慈者,所以使眾也。

What is meant by “In order rightly to govern the State, it is necessary first to regulate the family,” is this:— It is not possible for one to teach others, while he cannot teach his own family. Therefore, the ruler, without going beyond his family, completes the lessons for the State. There is filial piety:—therewith the Sovereign should be served. There is fraternal submission:—therewith elders and superiors should be served. There is kindness:—therewith the multitude should be treated.

康誥曰:“如保赤子。”心誠求之,雖不中不遠矣。未有學養子而後嫁者也!

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “Act as if you were watching over an infant.” If (a mother) is really anxious about it, though she may not hit exactly the wants of her infant, she will not be far from doing so. There never has been a girl who learned to bring up a child, that she might afterwards marry.

一家仁,一國興仁;一家讓,一國興讓;一人貪戾,一國作亂:其機如此。此謂一言僨事,一人定國。

From the loving example of one family a whole State becomes loving, and from its courtesies the whole State becomes courteous, while, from the ambition and perverseness of the One man, the whole State may be led to rebellious disorder;— such is the nature of the influence. This verifies the saying, “Affairs may be ruined by a single sentence; a kingdom may be settled by its One man.”

堯舜帥天下以仁,而民從之;桀紂帥天下以暴,而民從之;其所令反其所好,而民不從。是故君子有諸己而後求諸人,無諸己而後非諸人。所藏乎身不恕,而能喻諸人者,未之有也。

Yao and Shun led on the kingdom with benevolence, and the people followed them. Jie and Zhou led on the kingdom with violence, and people followed them. The orders which these issued were contrary to the practices which they loved, and so the people did not follow them. On this account, the ruler must himself be possessed of the good qualities, and then he may require them in the people. He must not have the bad qualities in himself, and then he may require that they shall not be in the people. Never has there been a man, who, not having reference to his own character and wishes in dealing with others, was able effectually to instruct them.

故治國在齊其家。

Thus we see how the government of the State depends on the regulation of the family.

《詩》云:“桃之夭夭,其葉蓁蓁;之子於歸,宜其家人。”宜其家人,而后可以教國人。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “That peach tree, so delicate and elegant! How luxuriant is its foliage! This girl is going to her husband's house. She will rightly order her household.” Let the household be rightly ordered, and then the people of the State may be taught.

《詩》云:“宜兄宜弟。”宜兄宜弟,而後可以教國人。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “They can discharge their duties to their elder brothers. They can discharge their duties to their younger brothers.” Let the ruler discharge his duties to his elder and younger brothers, and then he may teach the people of the State.

《詩》云:“其儀不忒,正是四國。”其為父子兄弟足法,而後民法之也。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “In his deportment there is nothing wrong; he rectifies all the people of the State.” Yes; when the ruler, as a father, a son, and a brother, is a model, then the people imitate him.

此謂治國在齊其家。

This is what is meant by saying, “The government of his kingdom depends on his regulation of the family.”

右傳之九章。釋齊家、治國。

The above ninth chapter of commentary explains regulating the family and governing the kingdom.

 

10

 

 所謂平天下在治其國者:上老老而民興孝,上長長而民興弟,上恤孤而民不倍,是以君子有絜矩之道也。

What is meant by “The making the whole kingdom peaceful and happy depends on the government of his State,” is this:— When the sovereign behaves to his aged, as the aged should be behaved to, the people become filial; when the sovereign behaves to his elders, as the elders should be behaved to, the people learn brotherly submission; when the sovereign treats compassionately the young and helpless, the people do the same. Thus the ruler has a principle with which, as with a measuring-square, he may regulate his conduct.

所惡于上,毋以使下;所惡于下,毋以事上;所惡于前,毋以先後;所惡于後,毋以從前;所惡于右,毋以交于左;所惡于左,毋以交於右:此之謂絜矩之道。

What a man dislikes in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of his inferiors; what he dislikes in inferiors, let him not display in the service of his superiors; what he hates in those who are before him, let him not therewith precede those who are behind him; what he hates in those who are behind him, let him not therewith follow those who are before him; what he hates to receive on the right, let him know him not bestow on the left; what he hates to receive on the left, let him not bestow on the right— this is what is called “The principle with which, as with a measuring-square, to regulate one's conduct.”

《詩》云:“樂只君子,民之父母。”民之所好好之,民之所惡惡之,此之謂民之父母。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “How much to be rejoiced in are these princes, the parents of the people!” When a prince loves what the people love, and hates what the people hate, then is he what is called the parent of the people.

《詩》云:“節彼南山,維石岩岩,赫赫師尹,民具爾瞻。”有國者不可以不慎,辟則為天下僇矣。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Lofty is that southern hill, with its rugged masses of rocks! Greatly distinguished are you, O grand-teacher Yin, the people all look up to you.” Rulers of States may not neglect to be careful. If they deviate to a mean selfishness, they will be a disgrace in the kingdom.

《詩》云:“殷之未喪師,克配上帝。儀監于殷,峻命不易。”道得眾則得國,失眾則失國。

In the Book of Poetry, it is said, “Before the sovereigns of the Yin dynasty had lost the hearts of the people, they could appear before God. Take warning from the house of Yin. The great decree is not easily preserved.” This shows that, by gaining the people, the kingdom is gained, and, by losing the people, the kingdom is lost.

是故君子先慎乎德。有德此有人,有人此有土,有土此有財,有財此有用。

On this account, the ruler will first take pains about his own virtue. Possessing virtue will give him the people. Possessing the people will give the territory. Possessing the territory will give him its wealth. Possessing the wealth, he will have resources for expenditure.

德者本也,財者末也.

Virtue is the root; wealth is the result.

外本內末,爭民施奪。

If he make the root his secondary object, and the result his primary, he will only wrangle with his people, and teach them rapine.

是故財聚則民散,財散則民聚。

Hence, the accumulation of wealth is the way to scatter the people; and the letting it be scattered among them is the way to collect the people.

是故言悖而出者,亦悖而入;貨悖而入者,亦悖而出。

And hence, the ruler's words going forth contrary to right will come back to him in the same way, and wealth, gotten by improper ways, will take its departure by the same.

《康誥》曰:“惟命不于常!”道善則得之,不善則失之矣。

In the Announcement to Kang, it is said, “The decree indeed may not always rest on us;” that is, goodness obtains the decree, and the want of goodness loses it.

《楚書》曰:“楚國無以為寶,惟善以為寶。”

In the Book of Chu, it is said, “The kingdom of Chu does not consider that to be valuable. It values, instead, its good men.”

舅犯曰:“亡人無以為寶,仁親以為寶。”

Duke Wen's uncle, Fàn, said, “Our fugitive does not account that to be precious. What he considers precious is the affection due to his parent.

《秦誓》曰:“若有一个臣,斷斷兮無他技,其心休休焉,其如有容焉。人之有技,若己有之,人之彥聖,其心好之,不啻若自其口出,寔能容之,以能保我子孫黎民,尚亦有利哉。人之有技,媢疾以惡之,人之彥聖,而違之俾不通,寔不能容,以不能保我子孫黎民,亦曰殆哉。”

In the Declaration of the duke of Qin, it is said, “Let me have but one minister, plain and sincere, not pretending to other abilities, but with a simple, upright, mind; and possessed of generosity, regarding the talents of others as though he himself possessed them, and, where he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, loving them in his heart more than his mouth expresses, and really showing himself able to bear them and employ them:—such a minister will be able to preserve my sons and grandsons and black-haired people, and benefits likewise to the kingdom may well be looked for from him. But if it be his character, when he finds men of ability, to be jealous and hate them; and, when he finds accomplished and perspicacious men, to oppose them and not allow their advancement, showing himself really not able to bear them:—such a minister will not be able to protect my sons and grandsons and black-haired people; and may he not also be pronounced dangerous to the State?”

唯仁人放流之,迸諸四夷,不與同中國。此謂唯仁人為能愛人,能惡人。

It is only the truly virtuous man who can send away such a man and banish him, driving him out among the barbarous tribes around, determined not to dwell along with him in the Middle Kingdom. This is in accordance with the saying, It is only the truly virtuous man who can love or who can hate others.

見賢而不能舉,舉而不能先,命也;見不善而不能退,退而不能遠,過也。

To see men of worth and not be able to raise them to office;to raise them to office, but not to do so quickly:— this is disrespectful. To see bad men and not be able to remove them;to remove them, but not to do so to a distance:— this is weakness.

好人之所惡,惡人之所好,是謂拂人之性,菑必逮夫身。

To love those whom men hate, and to hate those whom men love;— this is to outrage the natural feeling of men. Calamities cannot fail to come down on him who does so.

是故君子有大道,必忠信以得之,驕泰以失之。

Thus we see that the sovereign has a great course to pursue. He must show entire self-devotion and sincerity to attain it, and by pride and extravagance he will fail of it.

生財有大道,生之者眾,食之者寡,為之者疾,用之者舒,則財恒足矣。

There is a great course also for the production of wealth. Let the producers be many and the consumers few. Let there be activity in the production, and economy in the expenditure. Then the wealth will always be sufficient.

仁者以財發身,不仁者以身發財。

The virtuous ruler, by means of his wealth, makes himself more distinguished. The vicious ruler accumulates wealth, at the expense of his life.

未有上好仁而下不好義者也,未有好義其事不終者也,未有府庫財非其財者也。

Never has there been a case of the sovereign loving benevolence, and the people not loving righteousness. Never has there been a case where the people have loved righteousness, and the affairs of the sovereign have not been carried to completion. And never has there been a case where the wealth in such a State, collected in the treasuries and arsenals, did not continue in the sovereign's possession.

孟獻子曰:“畜馬乘,不察於雞豚。伐冰之家,不畜牛羊。百乘之家,不畜聚斂之臣。與其有聚斂之臣,寧有盜臣。”此謂國不以利為利,以義為利也。

The officer Meng Xian said, “He who keeps horses and a carriage does not look after fowls and pigs. The family which keeps its stores of ice does not rear cattle or sheep. So, the house which possesses a hundred chariots should not keep a minister to look out for imposts that he may lay them on the people. Than to have such a minister, it were better for that house to have one who should rob it of its revenues. This is in accordance with the saying:— “In a State, pecuniary gain is not to be considered to be prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness.

長國家而務財用者,必自小人矣。彼為善之,小人之使為國家,菑害並至。雖有善者,亦無如之何矣!此謂國不以利為利,以義為利也。

When he who presides over a State or a family makes his revenues his chief business, he must be under the influence of some small, mean man. He may consider this man to be good; but when such a person is employed in the administration of a State or family, calamities from Heaven, and injuries from men, will befal it together, and, though a good man may take his place, he will not be able to remedy the evil. This illustrates again the saying, In a State, gain is not to be considered prosperity, but its prosperity will be found in righteousness.

右傳之十章,釋治國、平天下。

The above tenth chapter of commentary explains the government of the state, and the making the peaceful and happy.

 

 

(《大學》/《Daxue》 / 《The Great Learning》)

 

The Great Learning is a short text generally attributed to Confucius, for the first chapter, and his disciple Zengzi for the ten following commentaries. It is the first of the Four books which were selected by Zhu Xi in the Song Dynasty as a foundational introduction to Confucianism. It was originally one chapter in Li Ji (the Classic of Rites). A part of Legge's introduction to his translation of the book is quoted below.

This Treatise has undoubtedly great merits, but they are not to be sought in the severity of its logical processes, or the large-minded prosecution of any course of thought. We shall find them in the announcement of certain seminal principles, which, if recognised in government and the regulation of conduct, would conduce greatly to the happiness and virtue of mankind. I will conclude these observations by specifying four such principles.

First. The writer conceives nobly of the object of government, that it is to make its subjects happy and good. This may not be a sufficient account of that object, but it is much to have it so clearly laid down to 'all kings and governors,' that they are to love the people, ruling not for their own gratification but for the good of those over whom they are exalted by Heaven. Very important also is the statement that rulers have no divine right but what springs from the discharge of their duty. 'The decree does not always rest on them. Goodness obtains it, and the want of goodness loses it.'

Second. The insisting on personal excellence in all who have authority in the family, the state, and the kingdom, is a great moral and social principle. The influence of such personal excellence may be overstated, but by the requirement of its cultivation the writer deserved well of his country.

Third. Still more important than the requirement of such excellence, is the principle that it must be rooted in the state of the heart, and be the natural outgrowth of internal sincerity. 'As a man thinketh in his heart, so is he.' This is the teaching alike of Solomon and the author of the Great Learning.

Fourth. I mention last the striking exhibition which we have of the golden rule, though only in its negative form:– 'What a man dislikes in his superiors, let him not display in the treatment of his inferiors; what he dislikes in inferiors, let him not display in his service of his superiors; what he dislikes in those who are before him, let him not therewith precede those who are behind him; what he dislikes in those who are behind him, let him not therewith follow those who are before him; what he dislikes to receive on the right, let him not bestow on the left; what he dislikes to receive on the left, let him not bestow on the right. This is what is called the principle with which, as with a measuring square, to regulate one's conduct.' The Work which contains those principles cannot be thought meanly of. They are 'commonplace,' as the writer in the Chinese Repository calls them, but they are at the same time eternal verities.

 

(《大學》/《Daxue》 / 《The Great Learning》)