《Confucian Analects》《論語》(英文版)中國文化核心經典 經部四書類


論 語

Confucian Analects

James Legge ,1893

 

憲問第十四

Book XIV: Hsien Wan

 

Chapter 1

  憲問“恥”。

  子曰:“邦有道,穀;邦無道,穀:恥也。”

It is shameful in an officer to be caring only about his emolument.
Hsien asked what was shameful. The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, to be thinking only of salary; and, when bad government prevails, to be thinking, in the same way, only of salary;-- this is shameful."

 

Chapter 2

  “克、伐、怨、欲不行焉,可以爲仁矣?”

  子曰:“可以爲難矣,仁則吾不知也。”

The praise of perfect virtue is not to be allowed for the repression of bad feelings.
1. "When the love of superiority, boasting, resentments, and covetousness are repressed, this may be deemed perfect virtue."

2. The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."

 

Chapter 3

  子曰:“士而懷居,不足以爲士矣!”

A scholar must be aiming at what is higher than comfort or pleasure.
The Master said, "The scholar who cherishes the love of comfort is not fit to be deemed a scholar."

 

Chapter 4

  子曰:“邦有道,危言危行。邦無道,危行言孫。”

What one does must always be right; what one feels need not always be spoken:-- a lesson of prudence.
The Master said, "When good government prevails in a state, language may be lofty and bold, and actions the same. When bad government prevails, the actions may be lofty and bold, but the language may be with some reserve."

 

Chapter 5

  子曰:“有德者必有言,有言者不必有德。仁者必有勇,勇者不必有仁。”

We may predicate the external from the internal, but not vice versa.
The Master said, "The virtuous will be sure to speak correctly, but those whose speech is good may not always be virtuous. Men of principle are sure to be bold, but those who are bold may not always be men of principle."

 

Chapter 6

  南宮适問於孔子曰:“羿善射,奡盪舟,俱不得其死然。禹、稷躬稼而有天下。”

  夫子不答。

  南宮适出。

  子曰:“君子哉若人!尚德哉若人!”

Eminent prowess conducting to ruin; eminent virtue leading to dignity. The modesty of Confucius.
Nan-kung Kwo, submitting an inquiry to Confucius, said, "Î was skillful at archery, and Âo could move a boat along upon the land, but neither of them died a natural death. Yü and Chî personally wrought at the toils of husbandry, and they became possessors of the kingdom." The Master made no reply; but when Nan-kung Kwo went out, he said, "A superior man indeed is this! An esteemer of virtue indeed is this!"

 

Chapter 7

  子曰:“君子而不仁者有矣夫,未有小人而仁者也。”

The highest virtue not easily attained to, and incompatible with meanness.
The Master said, "Superior men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas! But there never has been a mean man, and, at the same time, virtuous."

 

Chapter 8

  子曰:“愛之,能勿勞乎?忠焉,能勿誨乎?”

A lesson for parents and ministers, that they must be strict and decided.
The Master said, "Can there be love which does not lead to strictness with its object? Can there be loyalty which does not lead to the instruction of its object?"

 

Chapter 9

  子曰:“爲命:裨諶草創之,世叔討論之,行人子羽脩飾之,東里子產潤色之。”

The excellence of the official notifications of Chang, owing to the ability of four of its officers.
The Master said, "In preparing the governmental notifications, P'î Shan first made the rough draft; Shî-shû examined and discussed its contents; Tsze-yü, the manager of foreign intercourse, then polished the style; and, finally, Tsze-ch'ân of Tung-lî gave it the proper elegance and finish."

 

Chapter 10

  或問子產。

  子曰:“惠人也。”

  問子西。

  曰:“彼哉彼哉!”

  問管仲。

  曰:“人也,奪伯氏駢邑三百,飯疏食,沒齒無怨言。”

The judgement of Confucius concerning Tsze-ch'ân, tsze-hsî, and Kwan Chung.
1. Some one asked about Tsze-ch'ân. The Master said, "He was a kind man."

2. He asked about Tsze-hsî. The Master said, "That man! That man!"

3. He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse rice to eat."

 

Chapter 11

  子曰:“貧而無怨難,富而無驕易。”

It is harder to bear poverty aright than to carry riches.
The Master said, "To be poor without murmuring is difficult. To be rich without being proud is easy."

 

Chapter 12

  子曰:“孟公綽爲趙魏老則優,不可以爲滕、薛大夫。”

The capacity of Mang Kung-ch'o.
The Master said, "Mang Kung-ch'o is more than fit to be chief officer in the families of Châo and Wei, but he is not fit to be great officer to either of the States Tang or Hsieh."

 

Chapter 13

  子路問成人。

  子曰:“若臧武仲之知,公綽之不欲,卞莊子之勇,冉求之藝,文之以禮樂,亦可以爲成人矣!”

  曰:“今之成人者何必然?見利思義,見危授命,久要不忘平生之言,亦可以爲成人矣。”

Of the complete man:-- a conversation with Tsze-lû.
1. Tsze-lû asked what constituted a COMPLETE man. The Master said, "Suppose a man with the knowledge of Tsang Wû-chung, the freedom from covetousness of Kung-ch'o, the bravery of Chwang of Pien, and the varied talents of Zan Ch'iû; add to these the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music;-- such a one might be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

2. He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-- such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man."

 

Chapter 14

  子問公叔文子於公明賈,曰:“信乎,夫子不言、不笑、不取乎?”

  公明賈對曰:“以告者過也。夫子時然後言,人不厭其言;樂然後笑,人不厭其笑;義然後取,人不厭其取。”

  子曰:“其然?豈其然乎?”

The character of Kung-shû Wan, who was said neither to speak, nor laugh, nor take.
1. The Master asked Kung-ming Chiâ about Kung-shû Wan, saying, "Is it true that your master speaks not, laughs not, and takes not?"

2. Kung-ming Chiâ replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth. -- My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"

 

Chapter 15

  子曰:“臧武仲以防求爲後於魯,雖曰不要君,吾不信也。”

Condemnation of Tsang Wû-chung for forcing a favour from his prince.
The Master said, "Tsang Wû-chung, keeping possession of Fang, asked of the duke of Lû to appoint a successor to him in his family. Although it may be said that he was not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was."

 

Chapter 16

  子曰:“晉文公譎而不正,齊桓公正而不譎。”

The different characters of the dukes Wan of Tsin and Hwan of Ch'î.
The Master said, "The duke Wan of Tsin was crafty and not upright. The duke Hwan of Ch'î was upright and not crafty."

 

Chapter 17

  子路曰:“桓公殺公子糾,召忽死之,管仲不死。”

  曰:“未仁乎?”

  子曰:“桓公九合諸侯,不以兵車,管仲之力也。如其仁!如其仁!”

The merit of Kwan Chung:-- a conversation with Tsze-lû.
1. Tsze-lû said, "The duke Hwan caused his brother Chiû to be killed, when Shâo Hû died with his master, but Kwan Chung did not die. May not I say that he was wanting in virtue?"

2. The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots:-- it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"

 

Chapter 18

  子貢曰:“管仲非仁者與?桓公殺公子糾,不能死,又相之。”

  子曰:“管仲相桓公,霸諸侯,一匡天下,民到于今受其賜。微管仲,吾其被髮左衽矣。豈若匹夫匹婦之爲諒也,自經於溝瀆而莫之知也!”

The merit of Kwan Chung:-- a conversation with Tsze-kung.
1. Tsze-kung said, "Kwan Chung, I apprehend, was wanting in virtue. When the Duke Hwan caused his brother Chiû to be killed, Kwan Chung was not able to die with him. Moreover, he became prime minister to Hwan."

2. The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the duke Hwan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.

3. "Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"

 

Chapter 19

  公叔文子之臣大夫僎與文子同升諸公。

  子聞之曰:“可以爲文矣。”

The merit of Kung-shû Wan in recommending to high office, while in an inferior position, a man of worth.
1. The great officer, Hsien, who had been family minister to Kung-shû Wan, ascended to the prince's court in company with Wan.

2. The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WAN (the accomplished)."

 

Chapter 20

  子言衞靈公之無道也,康子曰:“夫如是,奚而不喪?”

  孔子曰:“仲叔圉治賓客,祝鮀治宗廟,王孫賈治軍旅。夫如是,奚其喪?”

The importance of good and able ministers:-- seen in the State of Wei.
1. The Master was speaking about the unprincipled course of the duke Ling of Wei, when Ch'î K'ang said, "Since he is of such a character, how is it he does not lose his state?"

2. Confucius said, "The Chung-shû Yü has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chiâ has the direction of the army and forces:-- with such officers as these, how should he lose his state?"

 

Chapter 21

  子曰:“其言之不怍,則爲之也難。”

Extravagant speech hard to be made good.
The Master said, "He who speaks without modesty will find it difficult to make his words good."

 

Chapter 22

  陳成子弒簡公。

  孔子沐浴而朝,告於哀公曰:“陳恆弒其君,請討之。”

  公曰:“告夫三子。”

  孔子曰:“以吾從大夫之後,不敢不告也。君曰‘告夫三子’者!”

  之三子告,不可。

  孔子曰:“以吾從大夫之後,不敢不告也。”

How Confucius wished to avenge the murder of the duke of Ch'î:-- his righteous and public spirit.
1. Chan Ch'ang murdered the duke Chien of Ch'î.

2. Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the duke Âi, saying, "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."

3. The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."

4. Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, 'Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.'"

5. He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter."

 

Chapter 23

  子路問事君。

  子曰:“勿欺也,而犯之。”

How the minister of a prince must be sincere and boldly upright.
Tsze-lû asked how a ruler should be served. The Master said, "Do not impose on him, and, moreover, withstand him to his face."

 

Chapter 24

  子曰:“君子上達,小人下達。”

The different progressive tendencies of the supeior man and the mean man.
The Master said, "The progress of the superior man is upwards; the progress of the mean man is downwards."

 

Chapter 25

  子曰:“古之學者爲己,今之學者爲人。”

The different motives of learners in old times, and in the times of Confucius.
The Master said, "In ancient times, men learned with a view to their own improvement. Nowadays, men learn with a view to the approbation of others."

 

Chapter 26

  蘧伯玉使人於孔子。

  孔子與之坐,而問焉,曰:“夫子何爲?”

  對曰:“夫子欲寡其過而未能也。”

  使者出。

  子曰:“使乎!使乎!”

An admirable messenger.
1. Chü Po-yü sent a messenger with friendly inquiries to Confucius.

2. Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"

 

Chapter 27

  子曰:“不在其位,不謀其政。”

See Book VIII Chapter XIV.
The Master said, "He who is not in any particular office has nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties."

 

Chapter 28

  曾子曰:“君子思不出其位。”

The thoughts of a superior man in harmony with his position.
The philosopher Tsang said, "The superior man, in his thoughts, does not go out of his place."

 

Chapter 29

  子曰:“君子恥其言而過其行。”

The superior man more in deeds than in words.
The Master said, "The superior man is modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions."

 

Chapter 30

  子曰:“君子道者三,我無能焉:仁者不憂,知者不惑,勇者不懼。”

  子貢曰:“夫子自道也。”

Confucius's humble estimate of himself, which Tsze-kung denies.
1. The Master said, "The way of the superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, he is free from perplexities; bold, he is free from fear.

2. Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."

 

Chapter 31

  子貢方人。

  子曰:“賜也賢乎哉?夫我則不暇!”

One's work is with one's self:-- against making comparisons.
Tsze-kung was in the habit of comparing men together. The Master said, "Tsze must have reached a high pitch of excellence! Now, I have not leisure for this."

 

Chapter 32

  子曰:“不患人之不己知,患其不能也。”

Concern should be about our personal attainment, and not about the estimation of others.
The Master said, "I will not be concerned at men's not knowing me; I will be concerned at my own want of ability."

 

Chapter 33

  子曰:“不逆詐,不億不信,抑亦先覺者,是賢乎?”

Quick discrimination without suspiciousness is highly meritorious.
The Master said, "He who does not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things readily (when they occur);-- is he not a man of superior worth?"

 

Chapter 34

  微生畝謂孔子曰:“丘何爲是栖栖者與?無乃爲佞乎?”

  孔子曰:“非敢爲佞也,疾固也。”

Confucius not self-willed, and yet no glib-tongued talker:-- defence of himself from the charge of an aged reprover.
1. Wei-shang Mâu said to Confucius, "Ch'iû, how is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that you are an insinuating talker?

2. Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate obstinacy."

 

Chapter 35

  子曰:“驥不稱其力,稱其德也。”

Virtue, and not strength, the fit subject of praise.
The Master said, "A horse is called a ch'î, not because of its strength, but because of its other good qualities."

 

Chapter36

  或曰:“以德報怨,何如?”

  子曰:“何以報德?以直報怨,以德報德。”

Good is not to be returned for evil; evil to be met simply with justice.
1. Some one said, "What do you say concerning the principle that injury should be recompensed with kindness?"

2. The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"

3. "Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."

 

Chapter 37

  子曰:“莫我知也夫!”

  子貢曰:“何爲其莫知子也?”

  子曰:“不怨天,不尤人,下學而上達。知我者其天乎!”

Confucius, lamenting that men did not know him, rests in the thought that Heaven knew him.
1. The Master said, "Alas! there is no one that knows me."

2. Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying -- that no one knows you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;-- that knows me!"

 

Chapter 38

  公伯寮愬子路於季孫。

  子服景伯以告,曰:“夫子固有惑志於公伯寮,吾力猶能肆諸市朝。”

  子曰:“道之將行也與,命也。道之將廢也與,命也。公伯寮其如命何!”

How Confucius rested, as to the progress of his doctrines, on the ordering of Heaven:-- on occassion of Tsze-lû's being slandered.
1. The Kung-po Liâo, having slandered Tsze-lû to Chî-sun, Tsze-fû Ching-po informed Confucius of it, saying, "Our master is certainly being led astray by the Kung-po Liâo, but I have still power enough left to cut Liâo off, and expose his corpse in the market and in the court."

2. The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liâo do where such ordering is concerned?"

 

Chapter 39

  子曰:“賢者辟世,其次辟地,其次辟色,其次辟言。”

Different causes of why men of worth withdraw from public life, and different extents to which they so withdraw themselves.
1. The Master said, "Some men of worth retire from the world.

2. "Some retire from particular states.

3. "Some retire because of disrespectful looks.

4. "Some retire because of contradictory language."

 

Chapter 40

  子曰:“作者七人矣!”

The number of men of worth who has withdrawn from public life in Confucius's time.
The Master said, "Those who have done this are seven men."

 

Chapter 41

  子路宿於石門。

  晨門曰:“奚自?”

  子路曰:“自孔氏。”

  曰:“是知其不可而爲之者與?”

Condemnation of Confucius's course in seeking to be employed, by one who had withdrawn from public life.
Tsze-lû happening to pass the night in Shih-man, the gatekeeper said to him, "Whom do you come from?" Tsze-lû said, "From Mr. K'ung." "It is he, -- is it not?" -- said the other, "who knows the impracticable nature of the times and yet will be doing in them."

 

Chapter 42

  子擊磬於衞。

  有荷蕢而過孔氏之門者,曰:“有心哉,擊磬乎!”

  旣而曰:“鄙哉,硜硜乎!莫己知也,斯己而已矣。‘深則厲,淺則揭。’”

  子曰:“果哉!末之難矣。”

The judgement of a retired worthy on Confucius's course, and remark of Confucius thereon.
1. The Master was playing, one day, on a musical stone in Wei, when a man, carrying a straw basket, passed door of the house where Confucius was, and said, "His heart is full who so beats the musical stone."

2. A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"

3. The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult!"

 

Chapter 43

  子張曰:“《書》云:‘高宗諒陰,三年不言。’何謂也?”

  子曰:“何必高宗?古之人皆然。君薨,百官總己以聽於冢宰三年。”

How government was caried on during the three years of silent mourning by the sovereign.
1. Tsze-chang said, "What is meant when the Shû says that Kâo-tsung, while observing the usual imperial mourning, was for three years without speaking?"

2. The Master said, "Why must Kâo-tsung be referred to as an example of this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended to their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for three years."

 

Chapter 44

  子曰:“上好禮,則民易使也。”

How a love of the rules of propriety in rulers facilitates government.
The Master said, "When rulers love to observe the rules of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on them for service."

 

Chapter 45

  子路問“君子”。

  子曰:“脩己以敬。”

  曰:“如斯而已乎?”

  曰:“脩己以安人。”

  曰:“如斯而已乎?”

  曰:“脩己以安百姓。脩己以安百姓,堯、舜其猶病諸!”

Reverent self-cultivation the distinguishing characteristic of the Chün-tsze.
Tsze-lû asked what constituted the superior man. The Master said, "The cultivation of himself in reverential carefulness." "And is this all?" said Tsze-lû. "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to others," was the reply. "And is this all?" again asked Tsze-lû. The Master said, "He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people. He cultivates himself so as to give rest to all the people:-- even Yâo and Shun were still solicitous about this."

 

Chapter 46

  原壤夷俟。

  子曰:“幼而不孫弟,長而無述焉,老而不死,是爲賊。”

  以杖叩其脛。

Confucius's conduct to an unmannerly old man of his acquaintance.
Yüan Zang was squatting on his heels, and so waited the approach of the Master, who said to him, "In youth not humble as befits a junior; in manhood, doing nothing worthy of being handed down; and living on to old age:-- this is to be a pest." With this he hit him on the shank with his staff.

 

Chapter 47

  闕黨童子將命。

  或問之曰:“益者與?”

  子曰:“吾見其居於位也,見其與先生並行也。非求益者也,欲速成者也。”

Confucius's employment of a forward youth.
1. A youth of the village of Ch'üeh was employed by Confucius to carry the messages between him and his visitors. Some one asked about him, saying, "I suppose he has made great progress."

2. The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man."

 

 

(《Confucian Analects》)