《Confucian Analects》《論語》（英文版）中國文化核心經典 經部四書類
James Legge ,1893
Book XIV: Hsien Wan
It is shameful in an officer to be caring only about his emolument.
The praise of perfect virtue is not to be allowed for the repression of bad feelings.
2. The Master said, "This may be regarded as the achievement of what is difficult. But I do not know that it is to be deemed perfect virtue."
A scholar must be aiming at what is higher than comfort or pleasure.
What one does must always be right; what one feels need not always be spoken:-- a lesson of prudence.
We may predicate the external from the internal, but not vice versa.
Eminent prowess conducting to ruin; eminent virtue leading to dignity. The modesty of Confucius.
The highest virtue not easily attained to, and incompatible with meanness.
A lesson for parents and ministers, that they must be strict and decided.
The excellence of the official notifications of Chang, owing to the ability of four of its officers.
The judgement of Confucius concerning Tsze-ch'ân, tsze-hsî, and Kwan Chung.
2. He asked about Tsze-hsî. The Master said, "That man! That man!"
3. He asked about Kwan Chung. "For him," said the Master, "the city of Pien, with three hundred families, was taken from the chief of the Po family, who did not utter a murmuring word, though, to the end of his life, he had only coarse rice to eat."
It is harder to bear poverty aright than to carry riches.
The capacity of Mang Kung-ch'o.
Of the complete man:-- a conversation with Tsze-lû.
2. He then added, "But what is the necessity for a complete man of the present day to have all these things? The man, who in the view of gain, thinks of righteousness; who in the view of danger is prepared to give up his life; and who does not forget an old agreement however far back it extends:-- such a man may be reckoned a COMPLETE man."
The character of Kung-shû Wan, who was said neither to speak, nor laugh, nor take.
2. Kung-ming Chiâ replied, "This has arisen from the reporters going beyond the truth. -- My master speaks when it is the time to speak, and so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when there is occasion to be joyful, and so men do not get tired of his laughing. He takes when it is consistent with righteousness to do so, and so men do not get tired of his taking." The Master said, "So! But is it so with him?"
Condemnation of Tsang Wû-chung for forcing a favour from his prince.
The different characters of the dukes Wan of Tsin and Hwan of Ch'î.
The merit of Kwan Chung:-- a conversation with Tsze-lû.
2. The Master said, "The Duke Hwan assembled all the princes together, and that not with weapons of war and chariots:-- it was all through the influence of Kwan Chung. Whose beneficence was like his? Whose beneficence was like his?"
The merit of Kwan Chung:-- a conversation with Tsze-kung.
2. The Master said, "Kwan Chung acted as prime minister to the duke Hwan, made him leader of all the princes, and united and rectified the whole kingdom. Down to the present day, the people enjoy the gifts which he conferred. But for Kwan Chung, we should now be wearing our hair unbound, and the lappets of our coats buttoning on the left side.
3. "Will you require from him the small fidelity of common men and common women, who would commit suicide in a stream or ditch, no one knowing anything about them?"
The merit of Kung-shû Wan in recommending to high office, while in an inferior position, a man of worth.
2. The Master, having heard of it, said, "He deserved to be considered WAN (the accomplished)."
The importance of good and able ministers:-- seen in the State of Wei.
2. Confucius said, "The Chung-shû Yü has the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the litanist, T'o, has the management of his ancestral temple; and Wang-sun Chiâ has the direction of the army and forces:-- with such officers as these, how should he lose his state?"
Extravagant speech hard to be made good.
How Confucius wished to avenge the murder of the duke of Ch'î:-- his righteous and public spirit.
2. Confucius bathed, went to court and informed the duke Âi, saying, "Chan Hang has slain his sovereign. I beg that you will undertake to punish him."
3. The duke said, "Inform the chiefs of the three families of it."
4. Confucius retired, and said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter, and my prince says, 'Inform the chiefs of the three families of it.'"
5. He went to the chiefs, and informed them, but they would not act. Confucius then said, "Following in the rear of the great officers, I did not dare not to represent such a matter."
How the minister of a prince must be sincere and boldly upright.
The different progressive tendencies of the supeior man and the mean man.
The different motives of learners in old times, and in the times of Confucius.
An admirable messenger.
2. Confucius sat with him, and questioned him. "What," said he! "is your master engaged in?" The messenger replied, "My master is anxious to make his faults few, but he has not yet succeeded." He then went out, and the Master said, "A messenger indeed! A messenger indeed!"
See Book VIII Chapter XIV.
The thoughts of a superior man in harmony with his position.
The superior man more in deeds than in words.
Confucius's humble estimate of himself, which Tsze-kung denies.
2. Tsze-kung said, "Master, that is what you yourself say."
One's work is with one's self:-- against making comparisons.
Concern should be about our personal attainment, and not about the estimation of others.
Quick discrimination without suspiciousness is highly meritorious.
Confucius not self-willed, and yet no glib-tongued talker:-- defence of himself from the charge of an aged reprover.
2. Confucius said, "I do not dare to play the part of such a talker, but I hate obstinacy."
Virtue, and not strength, the fit subject of praise.
Good is not to be returned for evil; evil to be met simply with justice.
2. The Master said, "With what then will you recompense kindness?"
3. "Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kindness with kindness."
Confucius, lamenting that men did not know him, rests in the thought that Heaven knew him.
2. Tsze-kung said, "What do you mean by thus saying -- that no one knows you?" The Master replied, "I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not grumble against men. My studies lie low, and my penetration rises high. But there is Heaven;-- that knows me!"
How Confucius rested, as to the progress of his doctrines, on the ordering of Heaven:-- on occassion of Tsze-lû's being slandered.
2. The Master said, "If my principles are to advance, it is so ordered. If they are to fall to the ground, it is so ordered. What can the Kung-po Liâo do where such ordering is concerned?"
Different causes of why men of worth withdraw from public life, and different extents to which they so withdraw themselves.
2. "Some retire from particular states.
3. "Some retire because of disrespectful looks.
4. "Some retire because of contradictory language."
The number of men of worth who has withdrawn from public life in Confucius's time.
Condemnation of Confucius's course in seeking to be employed, by one who had withdrawn from public life.
The judgement of a retired worthy on Confucius's course, and remark of Confucius thereon.
2. A little while after, he added, "How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those sounds display! When one is taken no notice of, he has simply at once to give over his wish for public employment. 'Deep water must be crossed with the clothes on; shallow water may be crossed with the clothes held up.'"
3. The Master said, "How determined is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult!"
How government was caried on during the three years of silent mourning by the sovereign.
2. The Master said, "Why must Kâo-tsung be referred to as an example of this? The ancients all did so. When the sovereign died, the officers all attended to their several duties, taking instructions from the prime minister for three years."
How a love of the rules of propriety in rulers facilitates government.
Reverent self-cultivation the distinguishing characteristic of the Chün-tsze.
Confucius's conduct to an unmannerly old man of his acquaintance.
Confucius's employment of a forward youth.
2. The Master said, "I observe that he is fond of occupying the seat of a full-grown man; I observe that he walks shoulder to shoulder with his elders. He is not one who is seeking to make progress in learning. He wishes quickly to become a man."